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  • ZHANG Xiu-ping, ZHAO Nai-qing△
    Objective To propose a method to calculate sample size for survival analysis in single-arm trials. Methods Through theoretical formula derivation, we provided sample size estimation method for survival analysis in single-arm trials. Monte-Carlo simulations using STATA software were conducted to obtain the empirical power, so as to verify the accuracy of the estimated sample size. Results Simulation results showed that, when α=0.025 and α=0.01, the power of the sample size calculated by the formula is in accordance with the predetermined power. Conclusions The formula of sample size estimation we proposed could achieve the predetermined power for survival analysis in single-arm trials. Findings of this study provide reliable basis for sample size estimation of early stage antineoplastic drug clinical studies.
  • CHEN Xing, WANG Guo-min△, GUO Jian-ming

    Nephrolithiasis is a common urologic disease, of which the prevalence has been increasing rapidly.Recent studies have shown that metabolic syndrome(MS) is associated with the formation and recurrence of nephrolithiasis.Metabolic syndrome includes hypertension,diabetes, obesity and so on. 24-hour urinalysis is the main basis of the metabolic evaluation of patients with nephrolithiasis. Recently, it has been reported that changes in calcium, citrate, uric acid, oxalate, phosphate and protein in the urine of patients with metabolic syndrome are related to the formation and recurrence of nephrolithiasis, in which insulin resistance plays an important role.

  • ZHANG Yu1,2, KADEL Dhruba1,2, SUN Hao-ran1,2, QIN Lun-xiu1,2,3△

    In recent decade,a number of targeted therapies have been discovered and proven effective in a variety of human hematological and solid malignancies.However,the relatively rapid acquisition of resistance to such treatments which is observed in virtually all cases significantly limits their utility and remains a substantial challenge to their clinical application.As molecular mechanisms of resistance have begun to be elucidated,new strategies to overcome or prevent the development of resistance have been emerging.Here,we summarize the characteristics of these targeted therapies and provide an overview of the key clinical trials that led to approval of these drugs,the various mechanisms of drug resistance and potential ways to overcome that.

  • WANG Xiang-yu1,2,ZHENG Yan1,2,3,LU Ming1,2,QIN Lun-xiu1,2,3△

    Metastasis and metabolic deregulation are two of the major essential hallmarks of cancer.In the initiation and development of cancer,tumor cells are known to undergo metabolic alterations to sustain faster proliferation.Recent studies indicated that metabolic changes of tumors are also closely related to tumor metastasis.In this review,we summarize the research progress about the roles and related mechanism of tumor metabolism in tumor metastasis from the aspects of both the tumor cell and microenvironment.

  • WEI Jin-wang1,2,3, SHENG Yuan-yuan1,2,3,QIN Lun-xiu1,2,3△

    Metastasis is one of the biological hallmarks of malignancy and the principal cause of death of patients.Recent years,metastatic potential is thought at least to be due to tumor heterogeneities which origin from the differences generated in the evolution process of cancer itself as well as host microenvironment.Derived from traditional theories,tumor heterogeneity includes more than gene mutations.The changes of non-genetic levels like epigenetic regulation and post-translational modification are widely considered.Based on the “seed and soil” theory about metastasis,this review summarizes the advances of studies in cancer metastasis from the perspective of evolution and heterogeneity,hoping to promote the study of metastasis and clinical control application.

  • Reviews
    BIAN Yun-yi, YANG Xiao-dong, ZHAN Cheng, YAO Guang-yu, BI Guo-shu, FAN Hong
    Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) mutation is one of the most common carcinogenic factors in a variety of tumors,which leads to the continuous activation of KRAS,while it in turn promotes cell proliferation and drives tumorigenesis.Although the exploration of targeted drugs targeting KRAS gene mutations has been a hot research topic for decades,it has not yet been developed to discover clinically effective drugs for KRAS gene mutations.Currently,the mechanisms of targeted therapy for KRAS gene mutation are mainly inhibiting the mutated KRAS genes directly,changing the KRAS membrane localization,inhibiting KRAS signaling pathways,and inhibiting KRAS mutant synergistic lethal genes.Here,we briefly review the progress of pharmacological strategies targeting KRAS mutated cancers.
  • YAN Yong-zhen, NA Ke, WEI Xiao-dong, JIN Yuan-yuan, ZHAO Bo, ZHAO Wen-jie△
    jms. 2013, 40(5): 619-624.

    【Abstract】Tumor cells generated occasionally in the body can be identified and removed as a foreign body by immune cells.The generation,development and metastasis of tumor cells although under the body′s immune surveillance,suggest that the tumor cells have the capability of immune escape.In this paper,the research progress of tumor immune escape in the process of tumor immunity including tumor antigen expression,identification,processing,presenting,T cell proliferation,activation and differentiation,as well as the emergence of immune effect is reviewed.

  • ZHANG Kai-li2,GAO Xiao-mei2,QIN Lun-xiu1,2,3△

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are necessary for tumor recurrence and distal metastasis.With the development and progress in the detection technologies of CTCs,more and more attentions have been focused on the biological characteristics and their potential clinical application of CTCs.Cumulating evidence suggests that CTCs are closely related to the prognosis of cancer patients,and may be used in personized cancer treatment.

  • LI Jian-hua1,2, ZHU Ying1,2, YANG Jing1,2, QIN Lun-xiu1,2,3△

    Cancer therapy targeting immune checkpoints such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1),programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) has achieved noteworthy benefit in multiple cancers by blocking immune-inhibitory signals and enabling patients to produce an effective antitumor immune response.The Cancer therapy of the monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4,PD-1 and PD-L-1 has brought a promising future for cancer treatment.In this review,we mainly discuss the progress in the tumor immune checkpoint-targeted immunotherapy in recent years.

  • HU Ke1, LU Zhi-qiang1, DONG Yi2, ZHANG Zi-han3, LIU Ling-xiao3△

    Objective  To compare the short-term safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) for treatment of large benign thyroid nodules. Methods  A total of 34 patients with large benign thyroid nodules were studied retrospectively, including 13 patients treated with ultrasound-guided RFA and 21 patients treated with MWA between Jun., 2016 and Feb., 2017 in Zhongshan Hospital. The thyroid function parameters, serum antibodies, complications and thyroid nodules volume reduction rate(VRR) were compared between the two groups during the follow-up. Results  There were no statistically significant differences (P0.05) among those patients before and after treatment in serum free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab) levels, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab). One patient in the MWA group had mild hoarseness after ablation and another patient in the RFA group had intraoperative hemorrhage for about 10 mL. There were no other complications such as neck scar, postoperative infection, skin burns, tracheal and esophageal injury. One day after the ablation, all nodules were showed hypoecho and contrast-enhanced ultrasound proved there was no blood supply. One month after treatment, no statistically significant difference was found in VRR between two groups (23.8% vs. 22.6%, P=0.127). Conclusions  RFA and MWA are safe and effective treatments for large benign thyroid nodules, and no significant difference was observed in short-term follow-up.

  • ZHANG Zi-han1,2, LUO Jian-jun1,2△, YAN Zhi-ping1,2, LIU Qing-xin1,2, ZHANG Wen1,2, LIU Ling-xiao1,2, WANG Jian-hua1,2
    Objective  To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular implantation of iondine-125 (125I) seeds strand and stent combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with main portal vein (MPV) tumor thrombus (MPVTT).Methods  Data on treatment with intra-portal vein stent placement and TACE in 289 consecutive HCC patients with MPVTT,from Jan., 2009 to Dec., 2014 in Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University were analyzed retrospectively.Synchronal implantation of 125I seeds strand in MPV was performed in 194 patients (study group).The remaining 95 patients who refused endovascular brachytherapy served as control (control group).The overall survival,free of disease progression survival,stent patency period and procedure-related adverse events were compared between the two groups.Results  All 125I seeds strand and stent were implanted in obstructed MPV correctly without serious procedure-related adverse events.During a mean of (10.1±5.2) months’ follow-up,the median survival was (9.3±1.1) months in study group,while it was (4.9±0.5) months in control group,respectively (P<0.001).Median free of disease progression survival in study and control group was (6.0±0.3) months and (3.0±0.1) months (P<0.001).Median stent patency period was (11.0±1.1) months in study group and (4.8±0.3) months in control group,respectively (P<0.001).Conclusions  These findings suggested that endovascular implantation of 125I seeds strand and stent combined with TACE was potentially a safe and effective treatment option for patients with HCC and MPVTT.
     
  • ZHU Cheng-hua, ZHOU Yi-biao△, SONG Xiu-xia, JIANG Qing-wu

    Districts in Liangshan Prefecture,Sichuan Province have a high incidence of AIDs.The special geographical,cultrural,sexual and health economical status there make it hard to prevent HIV.The lack of effective educating methods,drugs and health-service system,and stubborn staditional sexual customs are the main obstacles.So publicizing in a stronger method,improving the surveillance system,allocating health-service resource soundly and intervening suiting local conditions should be put a high premium.

  • 实验研究报道
    SHEN Qiang;YU Zhang△;FA Jing;LIU Yi;GAO Hong-jian;ZHONG Ci-sheng
    . 2010, 37(3): 322-325.
    Objective To observe common and individual morphological features of various apoptotic cells. Methods Apoptotic cell samples were prepared from organism tissues including rat ovarian follicle and retina, and from cell cultures including human bladder cancer cell line T24 and liver cancer cell line. The ultrastructure was observed under the electron microscope. The apoptotic photoreceptor cells in the rat retina were induced by alkylate, and those in the ovarian follicle happened physiologically. Results All the observed apoptotic cells showed cell body shrinkage, cytoplasm density increase and chromatin condensation, but their nuclear membrane, plasm membrane and organelles were intact. However, different apoptotic cells showed somewhat different chromatin condensation appearances. Some of them showed chromatin margination, some did a few chromatin blocks scattering in the nucleus, and others displayed a highly compact chromatin block occupying the whole nucleus. Conclusions It was observed that the chromatin condensation in apoptotic cells showed other appearances than the margination. It suggested that dark cells in a normal tissue and the pyknosis in a necrotic tissue should be carefully discriminated from apoptotic cells.
  • 综述
    WANG Shu-yan△;ZHOU Yi-ming;CHEN Zong-you
    . 2008, 35(6): 928-0.
    Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway in which damaged or superfluous proteins and organelles are cleared. Autophagy can also maintain homeostasis and viability of cells under metabolic stress by the recycling of these intracellular constituents. As to tumor cell with defect in apoptosis, autophagy limits its necrosis and inflammation, reduces the damage of genome and prolongs its survival under metabolic stress. Paradoxically, autophagy defect is also associated with carcinogenesis according to recent evidence. The research of autophagy has revealed the effect of autophagy on carcinogenesis and provides us a promising avenue for cancer therapy and prevention.
  • QIN Lun-xiu

    转移是肿瘤的最根本恶性特征,也是肿瘤患者的最主要死亡原因(90%以上患者死于转移)。转移是肿瘤细胞与宿主器官微环境相互作用的非常复杂的过程。肿瘤转移研究已经有一百多年的发展历程,其里程碑事件包括:(1)转移假说的提出:包括“种子与土壤”假说(Paget,1889)和“机械理论学说”(Ewing,1929),两者对立统一,指导着转移研究与防治。(2)对转移过程的逐渐认识,将转移途径区分为淋巴转移和血行转移(Bernard,1959)。(3)发现癌转移的异质性(Fidler, 1970)、提出克隆筛选理论(Nowell,1976)。(4)发现转移的器官特异性:1984年Tarin等发现器官特异性转移的证据;20世纪90年代确认转移的器官特异性;(5)认识到宿主因素的重要作用:20世纪60年代发现宿主因素影响转移;21世纪初开始针对宿主因素的抗转移治疗。
    转移研究一直是肿瘤临床与基础研究的热点与难点,最近20年,由于分子细胞生物学、特别是基因组和蛋白质组和免疫学等技术的发展,大大促进了对肿瘤转移过程的认知和转移防治策略的发展。近年的研究热点包括:肿瘤进化与肿瘤异质性和转移潜能、干细胞与EMT、肿瘤细胞与微环境的对话(包括外泌体、转移前壁龛)、微环境免疫编辑、CTC与分子显像以及免疫和靶向治疗等抗转移新策略等,这些领域均取得明显进展,有诸多新的发现。特别是最近肿瘤免疫与免疫生物治疗的突破性进展,为临床抗转移治疗提供了新的希望。为此,我们组织复旦大学肿瘤转移研究所的研究生,对上述领域的最新进展进行了总结,以餐读者。本专题综述了“干细胞在实体肿瘤转移中的作用与地位”、“肿瘤代谢与肿瘤转移”、“循环肿瘤细胞的生物学特性及其意义”、“外泌体与肿瘤侵袭转移相关研究进展”、“促进转移的肿瘤相关免疫细胞与靶向治疗策略”、“肿瘤免疫检查点靶向治疗的研究进展”、“肿瘤分子靶向治疗的研究进展”以及“肿瘤的进化与异质性及其在转移中的意义”,相信有助于全面了解肿瘤转移的基础研究现状以及临床诊疗研究的趋势,对肿瘤转移研究与防治具有指导意义。

  • LUO Qin1,SHAO Wei-qing2,3,YANG Lu-yu2,3,YU Guang-yang1,QIN Lun-xiu1,2,3△

    Tumor metastasis is mainly responsible for cancer mortality.It is promoted by both accumulation of intrinsic alterations and interaction of cancer cells with various stromal cells in tumor microenvironment.Tumor-infiltrating immune cells including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs),myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Treg),have been shown to support immune suppression and the metastasis of tumor cells.The dissemination of tumor cells to distant organ sites necessitates a treacherous journey,which requires immune escape,pre-metastatic niche formation,tumor cell egress into blood circulation finally arrival at the target organ and persistent metastatic growth.Each step of tumor metastasis is fostered by the communication between tumor and immune cells.This review focuses on the interactions between tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells,and potential immune strategies.

  • 论著
    ZHOU Yi-ming LIU Chang-xing WU Jian-hua WANG Yi-ting
    . 2008, 35(3): 336-0.
    Objective Study the hypotoxicity and tumor-targeting ability of genetically modified attenuated S.typhymurium VNP20009. Methods Non-tumor-bearing mice were infected intravenously with VNP20009 (case) or wild-type (control). Survival rate was observed; GFP-labeled VNP20009 and MFC murine gastric cancer cell lines labeled with RFP in the cytoplasm and GFP in the nucleus were established. The dual-color MFC cell lines in vitro and tumor-bearing (RFP-labeled MFC gastric cancer cell lines) mice were infected with GFP-labeled VNP20009. Growths of bacteria in vitro were observed under fluorescence microscopy. Growth of bacteria in vivo were observed under fluorescence microscopy to determine the extent of infection and cfu of normal tissues and tumors were determined by harvesting these tissues and homogenizing and planting supernatants on nutrient media. Results All mice infected with wild-type S.typhymurium expired by 4 days. In contrast, all mice infected with VNP20009 survived. The GFP-expressing VNP20009 grew in the cytoplasm of GFP-RFP-labeled MFC cells and caused nuclear destruction. In in vivo experiments, the number of bacteria had markedly regressed in the normal tissue. By day 15, GFP-labeled bacteria could no longer been seen. In contrast, the bacteria grew continuously in the MFC tumor. The tumor/liver bacteria ratios were 224:1 by day 4 and 1020:1 by day 6 after infection. Conclusions The genetically modified attenuated S.typhymurium VNP20009 has the very ability of tumor-targeting and hypotoxicity, which has great potential as a vector for cancer gene therapy.
  • DU Chun-ling1,2, XU Kan3, MIN Zhi-hui4, SU Xiao-qiong1, DONG Nian1, BAI Feng-xi1,CHEN Zhi-hong1△
    Objective  To detect cytokines in serum for chronic asthma and acute exacerbation by cytometric beads array method (CBA), and to analyze characteristics of cytokine subgroup and their relation to clinical data.Methods  Fourty chronic asthma,22 acute exacerbation of asthma and 18 healthy subjects were included.A little amount of blood was drawn from each subject (2 mL) and used for measuring cytokines by CBA to analyze their characteristics and correlation with clinical data.Regular blood test,C reaction protein and procalcitonin were measured by full automatic blood cell and biochemical analyzer.Results  CBA kit of cytokine panels were custom-made,which included IL-5,IL-6,IL-10,IL-13,IL-17,TNF-α and IFN-γ.No differences were found in cytokine levels in chronic asthma when compared with healthy subjects.However, in acute exacerbation phase,there were 5 cytokine subgroups which were high IL-6 (22.8%),high IL-6/TNF-α(13.6%),high IL-5 (31.8%),high IL-17(13.6%) and normal cytokine (18.2%).The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α increased  6.28-12 folds and 17.3 folds respectively compared with healthy subiects. High IL-6 and High IL-6/TNF-α were positively correlated with WBC and CRP (R2=0.63,R2=0.67:P<0.05).Conclusion   CBA was a reliable way to detect muti-cytokines in asthma serum in a short time.No differences were found in cytokine levels in chronic asthma.However,the specific cytokine panel (IL-6,TNF-α,WBC and CRP) may be helpful to identify the acute exacerbation caused by bacterial and guide appropriate antibiotic therapy.
     
  • ZOU Run-yu, FU Hua, GAO Jun-ling, WANG Jie, WANG Fan△
    Objective  To examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese-revised patient confidence in communication scale (PCCS) to probe its applicability in China,and then to test the score of PCCS and analyze its influential factors among a community population in Shanghai.Methods  Self-made questionnaires that contained Chinese-revised PCCS,7-dimension life attitude-habit scales as well as questions collecting personal basic information were introduced into a household survey conducted in 260 residents in a community in Shanghai,China from Mar.,to Sep.,2013.Reliability and validity test was conducted based on the data collected,and multifactor regression and relevant analysis wereintroduced to explore the influential factors of PCCS scores.Results  We obtained 254  valid questionnaires.The Cronbach′s α coefficient of Chinese-revised PCCS was 0.835 and the spilt-half coefficient was 0.839.Exploratory factor analysis was introduced to test construct validity and defined one factor with eigenvalue >1,which explained 55.28% variance.The scores of sub-items were significantly correlated with the total score,with the correlation coefficients coefficients ranking from 0.643 to 0.767.Valid questionnaires of 254 residents had an average PCCS score of 3.76.Living condition (live alone or not) and education level exerted main influence on the PCCS score (P<0.01).Besides,life satisfaction,interpersonal relationship,life optimism,health information acceptability and health information orientation were also positively correlated to the PCCS score (P<0.01).Conclusions  The Chinese-revised PCCS indicated good reliability and validity.PCCS score was relevant to many characters such as living condition,educational level and personal life attitude and habits.
  • 临床经验交流
    . 2009, 36(2): 231-234.
    目的 研究在多区域临床试验中样本量在各个地区比例分配的合理方法,计算为保证治疗效应在各个地区的一致性概率在80%或90%以上时最小的地区样本量的最低比例为多少。方法 通过多次设定各个地区的样本比例,根据治疗效应一致性概率的计算公式进行多次的计算得到一致性概率并作相关的线图分析。结果 在两个地区的多区域临床试验中,检验效能为80%时,为保证两个地区的治疗效果一致性概率P在80%(或90%)以上,则最小地区样本比例至少要9.3%(或22.2%)。检验效能为90%时,为保证两个地区的治疗效果一致性概率P在80%(或90%)以上,则最小地区样本比例至少要6.8%(或15.9%)。结论 在两地区的多区域临床试验中,随着最小地区样本比例的增加,两个地区的治疗效果一致性概率P也不断的增大。
  • 综述
    HUANG Ying-nan;WU Hao;SHEN Xi-zhongΔ
    Folate receptor (FR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI) linked protein.Its expression is low in normal tissues except for some certain ones,but is high in a variety of human cancers.Based on the high affinity to the FR,imaging agents and drugs can be conjugated to folic acid and targeted delivered to tumor cells.FR-targeted agents can be applied to the imaging of tumors,such as nulear medicine imaging,MRI,fluorescence imaging as well as the treatment of tumors,such as chemotherapy,isotope therapy,immunotherapy,antisense oligodeoxynucleotide therapy and gene therapy.This review focused on the FR-based diagnosis and treatment of the cancers.
  • WANG Chao-qun1,2,SUN Hao-ting1,2,QIN Lun-xiu1,2,3△

    Exosomes are a kind of microvesicles with diameters of about 30-100 nm,which are released by most living cells,and are made up of membrane structure with lipid bilayer and rich of functional contents.The tumor-derived exosomes were discovered for the first time in 1981.In recent 10 years,exosomes are found to contain functional proteins as well as functional nucleic acids,both of which acted as powerful promoters for tumor metastases.Depending on the unique way of loading and transporting proteins and nuclear acids,exosomes stably and effectively mediated intercellular communication.To better understand the mechanisms how exosomes promote tumor metastases might facilitate to identify the key issues for tumor metastases,which might further contribute to develop novel strategies to combat cancer metastases.

  • MA Xiao, YANG Yang, WANG Ying-ying, ZHAO Long-gang, SUN Jiang-wei, TAN Yu-ting, XIANG Yong-bing△

    Objective  To introduce the dose-response analysis of Meta-analysis.Methods  We first introduced the dose-response analysis of Meta-analysis.Then we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk to present the details about the dose-response analysis.Results  We illustrated the application of generalized least-squares trend estimation and restricted cubic splines in the doseresponse analysis of Meta-analysis using a practical example.“GLST”,“MKSPLINE” and some other commands of Stata were used to process statistical analysis.Twelve studies involving 39 943 prostate cancer cases and 577 458 total cohort members and twelve case-control studies involving 7 909 prostate cancer cases and 9 461 controls were included in the dose-response analysis.A borderline significant influence was found between coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk,and the pooled effect size of prostate cancer was 0.992 (95% CI:0.986-0.999) with one more cup per day.Conclusions  The doseresponse analysis in Meta-analysis is a method to present the combination between the levels of continuous exposure factor and relative risk for the outcome,making the results to be more productive and persuasive in cancer or chronic disease epidemiology.

  • LI Yu, DAI Chun-fu△
    Objective   To heighten the clinicians’ awareness of the facial nerve tumors.Methods   Eighteen cases with facial nerve tumors were initially misdiagnosed,and these clinical data were reviewed retrospectively,including age,sex,presentations,hearing threshold,facial nerve function,facial electroneurography (ENoG),temporal bone CT and MRI findings,surgical approaches and postoperative histopathological examination.Results   The 18 patients aged from 7 to 62 years with the average age of 43 years.Twelve cases were misdiagnosed as Bell′s palsy (66.7%),3 cases were misdiagnosed as cholesteatoma (16.7%),and the other 3 patients were diagnosed with space occupying lesion of the temporal bone,neoplasm of middle ear and parotid gland mass, respectively. The duration of patients underwent misdiagnosis ranged from 1 to 192 months,with the mean duration of 39 months.Facial paralysis and hearing loss were the most common presentations,which accounted for 77.8% and 66.7%,respectively.The presentations of tinnitus,otorrhea,spasm,otalgia and vertigo offen accured.In pathological type,16 cases of schwannomas (88.9%),1 case of hemangioma and 1 case
    of neurofibroma were reported,respectively (5.6%).Conclusions   Patients present the following symptoms or signs should be alert to diagnose as focial nerve tumers: progressive facial nerve paralysis with no improvement of facial nerve paralysis within 6 months,otitis media failed to anti-infective therapy,and a parotid gland mass closely related to the facial nerve.Image and pathological examinations play an important role in the diagnosis of facial nerve tumors.Surgical resection is the best choice for the treatment,and a reconstruction of facial nerve should also be considered.
  • XU Ting 1, LI Hua 2,3, LU Shan-shan 1, ZHANG Hong-qi 1,4, GE Jun-bo 3,5△

    Mitochondria provide basic energy for the cell life activities. Electron transfer complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane carry hydrogen and electronics to ATP enzyme complexes. This process is responsible for the energy and hydrogen ions across the membrane gradient cycle. The mitochondrial respiratort chain provides 95% of the energy to cell survival, which is mainly composed of 5 complex: NADPH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, ubiquinone-cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome c oxidase and ATP synthase located on the mitochondrial membrane. We explicated in detail molecular structure, function and biological significance of mitochondrial complexes in present article.

  • 方法技术
    PAN Jun-jie;SHI Hai-ming;LUO Xin-ping△;LI Jian;LIANG Wang;ZHANG Jin;MA Duan
    . 2010, 37(5): 594-597.
    Objective To transfect recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-TFPI-2 into U937 monocytes by different methods, and to acquire the method with better transfection efficiency. Methods The cells were divided into 6 groups transfected by different methods with electroporation, Effectene transfection reagent, Lipofectamine 2000, electroporation+Effectene transfection reagent, electroporation+Lipofectamine 2000 and HilyMax transfection reagent. Transfection efficiency, levels of target gene mRNA and cell viability were determined. Results Better transfection efficiency was abtained by electroporation+Effectene transfection reagent, electroporation+Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent and HilyMax transfection reagent. Moreover, HilyMax transfection reagent had less impaction on cell viability. Conclusions Recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-TFPI-2 was effectively expressed after being transfected into U937 monocytes in vitro, and the transfection efficiency was enhanced by optimizing the transfection methods, which provides experimental support to further gene therapy.
  • 论文
    . 2010, 31(1): 110-115.
  • ZHANG Jia-ming1▲, LIU Zu-yun1▲, ZHU Yin-sheng2, WANG Yong2, WANG Zheng-dong2, CHU Xue-feng2, QIAN De-gui3, WANG Xiao-feng1,JIN Li1△
    Objective  To explore the mediating effect of affect balance in the relationship between health condition and life satisfaction in long-lived elders. Methods  Overall 439 long-lived individuals (aged 95+ years) from the Rugao longevity cohort were included in the study. Health condition consisted of self-rated health and objective health (measured by disease severity). Life satisfaction and affect balance were measured by Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA) Scale and Affect Balance Scale (ABS) respectively. Spearman rank correlation and structure equation modeling were  used for data analyses.Results  The correlations between objective health, self-rated health, affect balance and life satisfaction were all significant (all P<0.05). Objective health and self-rated health had insignificant direct effects on life satisfaction (β=0.02, P=0.791; β=0.16, P=0.153). Objective health and self-rated health showed significant indirect effects on life satisfaction through the mediating effect of affect balance (β=-0.14, P<0.05; β=0.45, P<0.001).Conclusions  Affect balance is a mediating variable linking health condition to life satisfaction in long-lived elders.
  • 综述
    HAN Ning;SUN Gui-xin△
    . 2010, 37(5): 608-611.
    Full-thickness rotator cuff tears is a main cause of pain and dysfunction of shoulder, its optimal treatment still remains controversial. With the development of artroplasty, there are many treatment options including open, mini-open and all-arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery in addition to conservative treatment. The optimal treatment must be individualized by considering the individual factors of the patient, which include patient age, etiology, symptom and past management, etc. Individualized approach should be the key to the shoulder functional recovery.
  • Papers
    CHEN Su-hong, DAI Jun-ming, HU Qiao, CHEN Hao, WANG Yi, GAO Jun-ling, ZHENG Pin-pin, FU Hua
    Objective To explore the psychological status and influencing factors of the public during the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19),and provide the basis for mental health intervention. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire from Jan 31 to Feb 2,2020.The questionnaire included demographic information,anxiety,resilience and self-designed stressors scale,and was conducted among adults affected by the COVID-19 epidemic in China.Chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results A total of 4 827 valid questionnaires were obtained,with the average age of 32.3±10.0 years old,and females accounting for 67.7%.Only 7.9% of the objects had exposure history of Hubei province,while 14.8% had suspected or confirmed cases in the community.The average score of GAD-7 was 6.29±5.48,and the prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety was 22.6%.With moderate or severe anxiety as the dependent variable,Logistic regression analysis found that medium to high understanding of COVID-19 (OR:2.74-7.97,P<0.001) and strong perception of infection risk (OR=1.74,95%CI:1.37-2.20) significantly increased the risk of anxiety.In addition,ages between 35 and 44 years old,retired or non-professional technicians,exposure history of Hubei province and confirmed or suspected cases in the community were also risk factors for anxiety (P<0.05),while bachelor's degree or above and psychological resilience were protective factors for anxiety (P<0.05). Conclusion Under the outbreak,information of COVID-19 and perception of the risk of transmission will increase the risk of anxiety.There is widesprend anxiety in the public,and mental intervention should be strengthened to increase social support and psychological resilience.